Posts about safety

Do GFCIs and RCDs need a Ground Wire to Work?

Do GFCIs and RCDs need a Ground Wire to Work?

Before we begin, we should really do a quick review of the definition of “ground” or “earth” in electrical terms and what it really means to us. If you think back to your days in school, you may have...

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Soil Resistivity Testing

Soil Resistivity Testing

Soil resistivity testing is the single most critical factor in electrical grounding design. This is true when discussing simple electrical design, to dedicated low-resistance grounding systems, or to...

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What is the Best Definition for Ground or Earth?

What is the Best Definition for Ground or Earth?

Many people treat the NEC as if it’s the infallible word of some all-knowing electrical engineer (I wish it was). When in reality it’s written by committees that are full of political operatives,...

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Top 3 Mistakes People Make with Grounding & Earthing Projects - E&S Grounding Solutions

Top 3 Mistakes People Make with Grounding & Earthing...

The best way to protect people from electric shock and equipment from objectionable electrical damage, is to bond all exposed-conductive-parts together and ground/earth them to a single common...

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How Many Terms for the Neutral Conductor does the NEC Need? - E&S Grounding Solutions

How Many Terms for the Neutral Conductor does the NEC Need?

The National Electrical Code (NEC) is a vast and complex document.  Even electrical engineers and electrical inspectors who spend most of their working hours inside the book will argue against anyone...

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Managing Electrical Projects - E&S Grounding Solutions

Managing Electrical Projects

Managing electrical projects these days is getting more and more complex.  No longer do we have the days where we can simply design and install a basic electrical system without having to deal with...

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Do Not Let Poor Grounding Ruin Your Fourth of July Pool Party! - E&S Grounding Solutions

Do Not Let Poor Grounding Ruin Your Fourth of July Pool...

A 14-year-old boy recently died in Texas after “stepping in a puddle” that had a submerged extension cord running through it.  There had been heavy thunderstorms that week and the South Texas region...

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Boeing 737 MAX Electrical Grounding Issues - E&S Grounding Solutions

Boeing 737 MAX Electrical Grounding Issues

Recently (May 4, 2021) a news article on grounding issues with the Boeing 737 MAX seemed to appear in most media outlets as a significant news story. Boeing did the right thing by suspending nearly a...

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Should you bond the neutral and the ground wire in the main panel? - E&S Grounding Solutions

Should you bond the neutral and the ground wire in the main...

Installing (or not installing) a neutral-to-ground bond in your electrical panel is an especially important decision that impacts the electrical safety of the entire facility and all the people that...

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Does a Lightning Protection System Attract Lightning Strikes? - E&S Grounding Solutions

Does a Lightning Protection System Attract Lightning...

For the most part, lightning is comprised of free electrons that have been stored as static electricity in the clouds until those clouds can no longer hold the electrons.  These free electrons want...

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What is the Sphere of Influence? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What is the Sphere of Influence?

The Sphere of influence is the volume of soil throughout which the electrical potential rises to more than a small percentage of the potential rise of the ground electrode when that electrode...

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Grounding Electrode Test Wells - E&S Grounding Solutions

Grounding Electrode Test Wells

Grounding Electrode Test WellsThe purpose of a ground test well is two-fold: to be able to quickly and easily measure resistance-to-ground of the grounding electrode and/or to measure point-to-point...

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What are driven rods and advanced driven rods? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What are driven rods and advanced driven rods?

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What other types of grounding electrodes are there apart from ground rods? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What other types of grounding electrodes are there apart...

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The Zone of Influence - E&S Grounding Solutions

The Zone of Influence

The zone of influence is the volume of soil throughout which the electrical potential rises to more than a small percentage of the potential rise of the ground electrode, when that electrode...

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Why are 94Hz, 105Hz, 111Hz, and 128Hz frequencies used for earth ground resistance meters? - E&S Grounding Solutions

Why are 94Hz, 105Hz, 111Hz, and 128Hz frequencies used for...

Numerous studies going back many decades have shown that ground resistance measurements should be conducted using a true Direct-Current (0 Hz) source with an Induced-Polarization (IP) capacity.  In...

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What are the NEC Requirements for Grounding and Bonding Rebar? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What are the NEC Requirements for Grounding and Bonding...

Jake Asked:What are the NEC Requirements for Grounding and Bonding Rebar?

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Should you make neutral-to-ground bonds in electrical panels? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Should you make neutral-to-ground bonds in electrical...

John asked:Should you make neutral-to-ground bonds in electrical panels?

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What are some different types of grounding electrodes? - E&S Grounding Solutions

What are some different types of grounding electrodes?

Grounding is the process of electrically connecting any metallic object to the earth by the way of an earth electrode system. The National Electric Code requires that the grounding electrodes be...

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The NEC calls for use of Ground Fault Protection (GFP) type for circuit breakers for services over 1000A, does this include buildings or just equipment? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

The NEC calls for use of Ground Fault Protection (GFP) type...

Nazhan Asked:The NEC calls for use of Ground Fault Protection (GFP) type for circuit breakers for services over 1000A, does this include buildings or just equipment?

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Which ground or earthing rod should I use for my site? - E&S Grounding Solutions

Which ground or earthing rod should I use for my site?

Ground / Earthing rods (electrodes) are typically comprised of steel with a thin coating of copper or zinc (galvanized) to protect the steel from excessive corrosion. Copper-bonded ground rods are...

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Why does my surge protection device say not to use it with power cords? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Why does my surge protection device say not to use it with...

Bill asked: I bought a Surge Protection Device (SPD) for my laptop that is working fine.  However, in the fine print of the documentation it tells me that I should not use it with extension cords. ...

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How to Ground a Subpanel in a Detached Building or Garage? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How to Ground a Subpanel in a Detached Building or Garage?

Dan Asked:How do I run a 120 volt AC feeder from the main service panel (30 Amps) to a subpanel in a garage? Do I need to carry the ground wire in the feeder cable to the subpanel ground, which is...

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What Is An Acceptable Earth Ground Resistance Value? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What Is An Acceptable Earth Ground Resistance Value?

Mohammad asked:

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What Is Electrical Grounding? - E&S Grounding Solutions

What Is Electrical Grounding?

What Is Electrical Grounding? Electrical grounding or “Grounding” originally began as a safety measure used to help prevent people from accidentally coming in contact with electrical hazards. Think...

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What is the purpose of the PVC sleeve in concrete grounding? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What is the purpose of the PVC sleeve in concrete grounding?

Doug asked:What is the purpose of PVC sleeves in concrete? Is there any reference material discussing ground wire installation methods in concrete?

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Will applying salt around earthing electrodes help to resolve neutral to ground line voltage issues? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Will applying salt around earthing electrodes help to...

Vighnesh asked:Our neutral to earth voltage is fluctuating from 2.5v to 4.5v. We have a separate neutral earthing for UPS and DG and separate body earthing. We also regularly applying salt for earth...

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How Does One Lightning Strike Kill Multiple Animals? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How Does One Lightning Strike Kill Multiple Animals?

Steve Asked: How does lightning kill multiple animals in a single strike?

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What is Carbonaceous (Coke)​ ​Breeze and why was it banned? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What is Carbonaceous (Coke)​ ​Breeze and why was it banned?

Touri Asked:Can​ ​you​ ​please​ ​tell​ ​me​ ​which​ ​IEC​ ​article​ ​bans​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​carbonaceous​ ​backfills​ ​for​ ​earth​ ​electrodes?

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What is the Best Soil Resistivity Testing Method? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What is the Best Soil Resistivity Testing Method?

Peter asked:What is the best soil resistivity testing method?

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How To Do Electrical Grounding System Testing - E&S Grounding Solutions

How To Do Electrical Grounding System Testing

The measurement of ground resistance for an earth electrode system is very important. It should be done when the electrode is first installed, and then at periodic intervals thereafter. This ensures...

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How exactly are airplanes electrically grounded? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How exactly are airplanes electrically grounded?

Michael Asked:How are airplanes electrically grounded? Is a lightning protection system (LPS) effective if it is not grounded? If you install a lightning rod that is not grounded, is it more or less...

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Grounding of metal buildings - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Grounding of metal buildings

PJ Asked:Inspector requires grounding of metal building, I plan to use a rebar in slab to tie to metal frame in another place?

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What is the difference between neutral and ground wires? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What is the difference between neutral and ground wires?

Raymond asked:What is the difference between neutral and ground wires?

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Statement of Methodology for the NERC Geomagnetically-Induced Currents (GIC) Project - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Statement of Methodology for the NERC...

What are the data deliverables for the NERC Geomagnetically-Induced Currents (GIC) Project? BackgroundThe North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) is a not-for-profit international...

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What is the rod distance required by the NEC away from the electrical panel?  - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What is the rod distance required by the NEC away from the...

Greg Asked:In order to place two grounding rods, what is the distance required by the NEC away from the electrical panel? And what is the distance they should be from each other (the rods)?

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Can an insulated copper conductor be used for a ground grid? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Can an insulated copper conductor be used for a ground grid?

Sourav Asked:A client is asking for an insulated copper conductor on  a ground grid at a depth of 2’ from the grade level instead of bare copper due to corrosion issues.  We are trying to model and...

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How to calculate fault current in electrical substation grounding design? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How to calculate fault current in electrical substation...

Milan asked:How do I calculate the fault current an electrical substation grounding design? I am trying to understand how to design a substation grounding system and fault current is something I am...

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How To Stop Copper Pipe Corrosion With Electrical Grounding? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How To Stop Copper Pipe Corrosion With Electrical Grounding?

Reid asked:We have a new house that we chose to plumb with copper. Can I stop copper pipe corrosion with electrical grounding?

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What Is Soil Resistivity Testing? - E&S Grounding Solutions

What Is Soil Resistivity Testing?

Soil resistivity testing is the process of measuring a volume of soil to determine the conductivity of the soil. The resulting soil resistivity is expressed in ohm-meter or ohm-centimeter.

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What are the lightning protection standards for lightning down conductor installation? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What are the lightning protection standards for lightning...

Kevin asked:What are the lightning protection standards for lightning down conductor installation?

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Do I need a grounded conductor in my subpanel if all my loads are all 220v? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Do I need a grounded conductor in my subpanel if all my...

Jack Asked:Do I need a grounded conductor (neutral) in my subpanel if all my loads are all 220v (i.e. 2-phase)?

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Why separate the ground bar from the neutral bar in a sub-panel? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Why separate the ground bar from the neutral bar in a...

Russ asked: How can I correctly separate the ground bar from the neutral bar in an electrical sub-panel?The Answer:

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Is it ok to connect the lightning protection system to the main grounding system? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Is it ok to connect the lightning protection system to the...

Romeo Asked:Is it ok to connect the lightning protection system (LPS) to the main grounding system?

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What is the safe maximum voltage at a railroad-highway grade crossing during? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What is the safe maximum voltage at a railroad-highway...

Max Asked:What is the safe maximum voltage at a railroad-highway grade crossing during?

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What Are Some Typical Electrical Grounding Testing Procedures? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What Are Some Typical Electrical Grounding Testing...

Mike asked:What types of preventative maintenance electrical grounding testing procedures do you recommend for electrical grounding systems and how often?

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Is a Step & Touch evaluation compulsory after installing a new swimming pool? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Is a Step & Touch evaluation compulsory after installing a...

Nichole Asked:We are trying to put a swimming pool in, however, new rules are out that we have to get a Step and Touch evaluation done. Why?

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What is the minimum size of a down conductor for lightning protection? What is the individual resistance and combine resistance of electrode? What is the resistance of grounding network? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What is the minimum size of a down conductor for lightning...

Benjamin Asked: What is the minimum size of a down conductor for lightning protection? What is the individual resistance and combine resistance of electrode? What is the resistance of grounding...

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What Is Ground Potential Rise and Earth Potential Rise? - E&S Grounding Solutions

What Is Ground Potential Rise and Earth Potential Rise?

Ground Potential Rise (GPR) or Earth Potential Rise is a phenomenon that occurs when large amounts of electricity enter the earth. This is typically caused when substations or high-voltage towers...

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Why use a bare conductor for below ground grounding instead of an insulated conductor? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Why use a bare conductor for below ground grounding instead...

Shyam asked:What is the reason for using a bare conductor for below ground grounding instead of an insulated conductor?

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When is it necessary to put a disconnect switch in a residence with a 100, 200 amps, and where do you ground it to? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

When is it necessary to put a disconnect switch in a...

Greg Asked:When is it necessary to put a disconnect switch in a residence with a 100, 200 amps? and where do you ground it to? a rod water pipes or just to the panel?

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How can I test for an electrical current in water pipes? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How can I test for an electrical current in water pipes?

Bob Asked:We have a new house that is all plastic water pipe from the city to the house, a small piece of copper pipe in the garage then PEX plastic pipe in the house.  None of this is grounded.  We...

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When did the NEC Decide the Neutral and Ground Have to be Separated at the Panel? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

When did the NEC Decide the Neutral and Ground Have to be...

Karl Asked:In what year did the NEC first require that the neutral and ground have to be separated in a sub panel?

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What is the mathematical formula for calculating the resistance-to-ground of parallel electrodes? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

What is the mathematical formula for calculating the...

Slamat Asked:What is the mathematical formula for calculating the resistance-to-ground of parallel electrodes?

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How many ”hot” wires can a single neutral support? (assuming they are the same gauge wire) - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How many ”hot” wires can a single neutral support?...

Bob asked:How many ”hot” wires can a single neutral support?

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How to get a grounding rod below 1ohm ground resistance? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How to get a grounding rod below 1ohm ground resistance?

Gajanan Asked:How to get a grounding rod below 1ohm ground resistance?

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How we can reduce the voltage between the Neutral and Ground without using an Isolation Transformer? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How we can reduce the voltage between the Neutral and...

Our Answer:The difference in voltage between the neutral to the ground at any point in your electrical system should be very low, typically something less than one (1) volt.  This is easily measured...

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Are GFCI's required on refrigerators? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Are GFCI's required on refrigerators?

Max Asked:NEC now requires GFCI’s on refrigerators. Is there really a technical reason to put a GFCI on a refrigerator?

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Applying salt around earthing electrodes to help resolve neutral to ground line voltage issues - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Applying salt around earthing electrodes to help resolve...

Vighnesh asked:Our neutral to earth voltage is fluctuating from 2.5v to 4.5v. We have a separate neutral earthing for UPS and DG and separate body earthing. We also regularly applying salt for earth...

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Why bond the neutral and the ground wire in the main panel? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Why bond the neutral and the ground wire in the main panel?

Jorge asked: Why should I be concerned about bonding the Neutral-to-Ground Bond in the main panel?The Answer:Neutral-to-ground bond is needed to properly operate the circuit breakers.  Over Current...

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How do I ground a metal building or metal warehouse with metal frame sidings for proper inspection? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How do I ground a metal building or metal warehouse with...

PJ Inquired:I bought a 40X24 Metal frame with metal sidings building. No Elec or plumb at present, maybe later. Inspector requires grounding Metal Building. 1×5/8”x8’cu clad steel rod ok tied to...

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What is the Process for Installing a Lightning Protection System? - E&S Grounding Solutions

What is the Process for Installing a Lightning Protection...

Phase 1 – Conduct a Lighting Risk Assessment with a Rolling Sphere Analysis A Lighting Risk Assessment looks at a variety of factors involving the building, including the value of the property...

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How do you calculate voltage variations across a ground grid? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

How do you calculate voltage variations across a ground...

Nilushka Asked: I’m interested in calculating the voltage variation of the soil, inside a mesh in a grounding grid. currently I have modeled a grounding grid including vertical rods using PSCAD...

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Can all steel rebar be welded? - E&S Grounding Ask the Experts

Can all steel rebar be welded?

Jeff asked:Can I weld any steel rebar or are there specific grades to look for?Our Answer:Not all rebar can be welded, particularly with the exothermic welding process as it must be able to heat the...

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What is Step and Touch Potential and Reducing Resistance To Ground? - E&S Grounding Solutions

What is Step and Touch Potential and Reducing Resistance To...

Step Potential Step potential is the step voltage between the feet of a person standing near an energized grounded object. It is equal to the difference in voltage, given by the voltage distribution...

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